# Roaming on Nitro Network

## Roaming Architecture

### Network Reference Model

Figure 1 and Figure 2 shows the Network Reference Model (NRM) for the LoRaWAN architecture.
Figure 1: LoRaWan Network Reference Model (NRM), End-Device at Home

### End-Device

The end-device is a sensor or an actuator. The end-device is wirelessly connected to a LoRaWAN network through Nitro ION Miners. The application layer of the end-device is connected to a specific Application Server in the cloud. All application layer payloads of this end-device are routed to its corresponding Application Server.