Home NS (hNS) is where Device Profile, Service Profile, Routing Profile and DevEUI of the end-device are stored. hNS has a direct relation with the Join Server that will be used for the Join Procedure. It is connected to the Application Server (AS). When hNS and sNS are separated, they are in a roaming agreement. Uplink and downlink packets are forwarded between the sNS and the hNS.